Here are the notes from the speech:
The capacity and ability to know each other's minds, in terms of PISA.
Two forms of knowledge:
- knowledge sets, skills, dispositions, capacities
- reformed knowledge sets, skills, dispositions: performative capacities, e.g. exams
Performative knowledge: Wash-back consequences across:
- teaching and learning
- the individual
Washback consequences: different in different cases and situations.
Assessment: the traditional view:
- true score
- errors in testing
False psychometric beliefs:
- direct process of examination
- no background to knowledge
- no internal transformation: when a person is tested, no change occurs when they are tested. The original knowledge set transforms to a performative knowledge set
- no washback effect: no external transformation. The curriculum is reformed because of standardized tests.
- unidirectional linear process: no bidirectionality. There is forward and backward flow. The original assessment is unreliable.
- conflating lower and higher level skills: knowledge of facts vs. synthesis of basic facts - an example of the construct being tested
- conflating capacity with performance: "translate" for purposes of test
- culture-free testing vs. national values
- no problem with transfer
- develops a certain type of knowledge
- curriculum-free testing doesn't really exist
- comparison of different curricula, pedagogies, testing approaches
- different samples, different values to knowledge, different views of evidence, different national idioms
- the task of PISA is to iron out these differences
- "imperfect caricatures" of all knowledge bases under consideration. (Fair testing is very hard to do)
Indicators measured in PISA:
- quiet place to study: what does this mean?
- number of books at home: socio-economic status correlation. Number does not equal influence.
Indicators are hard to develop. Testers search for indicators which have:
- Perceived Task Value: washback effect
- Motivational effect - difference among children and nations
- Ironed out ambiguity (this, however, reduces complexity and depth)
PISA has become a league table ordering a nation's achievement. A league table cannot provide us with useful information. There is a need to design instruments that take into account other variables, a table for improvement, not achievement.
Foucault: "Examination" - Discipline and Punishment
- 10 pages about education
- a test: hierarchy, normalizing judgement
- allows society to construct individuals in certain ways
- transforms the economy of visibility into the exercise of power
- introduces the individual into the field of documentation
- making each individual a case
- hierarchical organization